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Glycemic index and glycemic load - INDIGENOUS OR TRADITIONAL FOODS OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS
(for normal glucose tolerance)

This table contains data for normal glucose tolerance only. To use the corresponding table for impaired glucose tolerance, please follow this link →
Glycemic
index
Serving
size
Glycemic
load
AFRICAN
Brown beans (South Africa)24±450 (dry)6
FooFoo corn (Zea mays) and ndole (vegetable soup)14 (Cameroon)34--
Ga kenkey, prepared from fermented cornmeal (Zea mays) eaten with fish, tomato and onion sauce (Ghana)12±21507
Gari, roasted cassava dough (Manihot utilissima) eaten with fish, tomato and onion sauce (Ghana)56±610015
Gram dhal soaked overnight, cooked in salted water (South Africa)5±350 (dry)1
Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) stew and plantain14 (Musa paradisiaca) (Cameroon)48--
Koki beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cassava14 (Manihot esculenta) (Cameroon)52--
Maize meal porridge, unrefined, maize-meal:water = 1:3 (South Africa)71±150 (dry)25
Maize meal porridge, refined, maize-meal:water = 1:3 (South Africa)74±450 (dry)30
M'fino/Morogo, wild greens (South Africa)68±812034
Rice (Oriza sativa) and tomato soup (Cameroon)1446--
Unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) eaten with fish, tomato and onion sauce (Ghana)40120 (raw)13
White rice (Oryza sativa), boiled, eaten with fish, tomato and onion sauce (Ghana)34±415014
Yam (Dyscoria species) eaten with fish, tomato and onion sauce (Ghana)6615024
Yam (Dioscorea species) and groundnut14 (Arachis hypogaea) soup (Cameroon)50--
ARABIC AND TURKISH
Dates, Khalas (Rutab, soft early ripened) (90 g), eaten with full-fat plain yoghurt (125 g) (United Arab Emirates)37±721519
Dates, Khalas (Tamer, dark brown commercial) (60 g), eaten with full-fat plain yoghurt (125 g) (United Arab Emirates)29±918515
Hummus (chickpea salad dip)6±4300
Lebanese bread (white, unleaved), hummus, falafel and tabbouleh86±612039
Stuffed grapevine leaves (rice and lamb stuffing with tomato sauce)301005
ASIAN
Broken rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Lion foods, Bangkok, Thailand)86±615037
Butter rice, warm white rice and butter (Japan)7915040
Curry rice (Japan)6715041
Curry rice with cheese (Japan)5515027
Glutaminous rice flour, instant, served warm with roasted ground soybean (Japan)6510027
Glutinous rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Bangsue Chia Meng Rice Co., Bangkok, Thailand)94±415031
Glutinous rice, type NS (Esubi Shokuhin, Japan)8615056
Glutinous rice ball with cut glutinous cake (mochi) (Japan)487513
Glutinous rice cake with dried sea algae (Japan)837532
Jasmine rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Golden World Foods, Bangkok, Thailand)10915046
Lotus root powder (China)33±3153
Low-protein white rice with dried sea algae (Japan)7015042
Lychee, canned in syrup, drained (Narcissus brand, China)79±912016
Mung bean noodles, dried, boiled (China)39±918018
Non-glutaminous rice flour, served warm with drink (Yamato Nousan, Japan)6810034
Rice cracker, plain (Sakada, Japan)913023
Rice gruel with dried algae (Satou Co Ltd., Japan)8125015
Rice noodles, dried, boiled (Thai World, Bangkok, Thailand)61±118023
Rice noodles, fresh, boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia)4018015
Roasted rice ball (Satou Co Ltd., Japan)777521
Salted rice ball (Satou Co Ltd., Japan)807521
Soba noodles, instant, reheated in hot water, served with soup (Japan)4618022
Sushi, salmon ('I Love Sushi', Sydney, Australia)848±810017
Sushi, roasted sea algae, vinegar and rice (Japan)5510020
Udon noodles, fresh, reheated (Fantastic brand, Windsor Gardens, SA, Australia)862±218030
Udon noodles, instant, with sauce and fried bean curd (Nishin Shokuhin, Japan)4818023
White rice, dried sea algae and milk, eaten together (Japan)5730027
White rice, dried sea algae and milk (milk eaten before rice) (Japan)5630026
White rice, dried sea algae and milk (milk eaten after rice) (Japan)5530026
mean of three types5630026
White rice with dried fish strip (okaka) (Japan)7915040
White rice with fermented soybean (natto) (Japan)5615024
White rice with instant miso soup (soybean paste soup) (Japan)6115029
White rice with low-fat milk (Japan)6930032
White rice and non-sugar yoghurt (yoghurt eaten before rice) (Japan)5915019
White rice and non-sugar yoghurt eaten together (Japan)5815019
White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber (pickled food eaten before rice) (Japan)6315027
White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber (pickled food eaten with rice) (Japan)6115026
White rice topped with raw egg and soy sauce (Japan)7215026
White rice with roasted ground soybean (Japan)5615029
White rice with salted dried plum (umeboshi) (Japan)8015039
White rice with sea algae rolled in sheet of toasted sea algae (Japan)7715039
ASIAN INDIAN
Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum), eaten as roasted bread made from bajra flour4975 (dry)25
Banana, (Musa sapientum), Nendra variety, unripe, steamed 1 h147012031
Barley (Hordeum vulgare)4815016
Bengal gram dhal, chickpea111504
Black gram, (Phaseolus mungo), soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h1443±31508
Chapatti
Chapatti, bajra49--
Chapatti, barley48--
Chapatti, maize (Zea mays)59--
Chapatti, flour from malted wheat, moth bean(Phaseolus aconitifolius) and bengal gram(Cicer arietinum)66±66025
Chapatti, flour made from popped wheat, moth bean and bengal gram406014
Chapatti, flour from roller dried wheat, moth bean and bengal gram606023
Chapatti, wheat flour, thin, with green gram (Phaseolus aureus) dhal44±420022
Cheela (thin savoury pancake made from legume flour batter)
Cheela, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum)42±215012
Cheela, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), fermented batter36±615010
Cheela, green gram (Phaseolus aureus)45±515012
Cheela, green gram (Phaseolus aureus), fermented batter38±815010
Dosai (parboiled and raw rice, soaked, ground, fermented and fried) with chutney55±515022
Green gram, (Phaseolus aureus), soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h1438±81506
Horse gram, (Dolichos biflorus) soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h1451±115015
Idli (parboiled and raw rice with black dhal, soaked, ground, fermented, steamed) with chutney6025031
Lentil and cauliflower curry with rice (Australia)6036031
Millet/Ragi, (Eleucine coracana), dehusked, soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h1468±815023
Pongal (rice and roasted green gram dhal, pressure cooked)45±525035
Poori (deep-fried wheat flour dough) with potato palya (mashed potato)57±715028
Porridge, made from scoured wheat, consumed with Bengal gram, green gram and black gram3910023
Porridge, made from decorticated finger millet, eaten with Bengal gram, green gram and black gram6510044
Porridge, made from popped rice (aralu), consumed with Bengal gram, green gram and black gram7610052
Porridge, made from expanded rice (puri), consumed with Bengal gram, green gram and black gram7410047
Rajmah, Phaseolus vulgaris (India)191506
Tapioca (Manihot utilissima), steamed 1h147025012
Upittu (roasted semolina and onions, cooked in water)69±915028
AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL
Acacia aneura (mulga seed) roasted, wet ground to paste88501
Acacia coriacea, desert oat seed bread8467511
Araucaria bidwillii (bunya tree nut), baked 10 min847507
Bush honey, sugar bag8433011
Castanospermum austral (blackbean seed), sliced, soaked 1 wk, pounded and baked88501
Dioscorea bulbifera (cheeky yam), peeled, sliced, soaked 2 d, baked 15 min83415012
Macrozamia communis (cycad palm seed), sliced, soaked 1 wk, pounded, baked8405010
PACIFIC ISLANDERS
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) (Australia)86812018
Banana/plantain, green
Green banana, boiled (New Zealand)38±81208
Plantain (Musa AAB) (Fiji)68±812021
Roti/chappati (Fiji)59±96016
Sweet Potato
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) (Australia)4415011
Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand)77±715019
Tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) (Fiji)63±315023
Taro
Taro (Colocasia esculenta) peeled, boiled (Australia)541504
Taro, peeled, boiled (New Zealand)56±61504
Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand)35±515013
PIMA INDIAN
Acorns (Quercus emoryi, stewed with venison816±61001
Cactus jam (Stenocereus thurberi)913018
Corn hominy (Zea mays)84015012
Fruit Leather (Stenocereus thurberi)703017
Lima beans broth (Phaseolus lunatus)836±625012
Tortilla (Zea mays and Olneya tesota)38609
White teparies broth (Phaseolus acutifolius)831±125010
Yellow teparies broth (Phaseolus acutifolius)829±92508
SOUTH AMERICAN
Arepa, corn bread cake, made with corn flour (Mexico)147210031
Arepa, made from ordinary dehulled dent corn flour12,31 (25% amylose)8110035
Arepa, made from dehulled high-amylose (70%) corn flour12,314410011
Arepa, made from white corn meal flour (Venezuela)5410019
Arepa, made from white corn meal flour, supplemented with 20% stabilised rice bran (Venezuela)6010019
Corn tortilla (Mexico)525012
Corn tortilla, served with refried mashed pinto beans and tomato sauce (Mexico)391009
Corn tortilla, fried, with mashed potato, fresh tomato and lettuce (Mexico)7810011
Ground beef served with rice and an orange (Chile)31±130024
Lentil soup, pureed consumed with an orange (Chile)49±930016
Pinhao, Brazilian Parana Pine seeds (Araucaria angustifolia) with coat, cooked for 1.5 h in 1 L of water (Brazil)47508
Pinhao, without coat, cooked for 1h in 1L of water (Brazil)43508
Pinto beans, boiled in salted water (Mexico)141504
Spaghetti served with beef tomato sauce and an orange (Chile)42±230021
Spaghetti served with pressure-cooked white beans and an orange (Chile)77±730025
Wheat tortilla (Mexico)30508
Wheat tortilla served with refried pinto beans and tomato sauce (Mexico)281005
WEST INDIAN/CARIBBEAN
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), peeled, boiled 26 min, frozen, thawed and reheated for 1 min6012017
Cassava (Manihot esculenta), peeled, boiled 30 min, frozen, thawed and reheated for 1 minDasheen (Colocasia esculenta)94±412036
Dasheen, peeled, boiled 30 min, refrigerated, reheated for 1 min77±715044
Dasheen, peeled, boiled 30 min, crushed, refrigerated, reheated for 1 min66±615038
Dasheen, peeled, boiled 30 min, uncrushed (whole), refrigerated, reheated for 1 min75±515043
Dasheen, peeled, cubed, boiled 30 min (Jamaica)72±215019
mean of four foods73±315036
Eddoe (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum), peeled, boiled 30 min, refrigerated, reheated for 1 min61±115021
Green banana/plantain (Musa sapientum)
Green banana, peeled, boiled 10 min (Jamaica)37±712010
Green banana, peeled, fried in vegetable oil (Jamaica)35±512011
Green banana/plantain, boiled 23 min, frozen, thawed and reheated for 1 min65±512017
Green plantain (Musa paradisiaca), peeled, boiled 10 min (Jamaica)39±91209
Green plantain (Musa paradisiaca), peeled, fried in vegetable oil (Jamaica)4012014
Ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), peeled, boiled 10 min (Jamaica)66±612013
Ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), peeled, fried in vegetable oil (Jamaica)9012026
Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum), peeled, boiled 30 min, refrigerated, reheated for 1 min71±115035
Irish potato, peeled, boiled 30 min, crushed66±615033
Irish potato, peeled, boiled 30 min, uncrushed (whole), refrigerated, reheated for 1 min66±615033
mean of three foods6815034
Sadha roti (leavened wheat-based bread)65±5--
Tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), peeled, boiled 30 min, refrigerated, reheated for 1 min6015033
Tannia, peeled, boiled 30 min, crushed, refrigerated, reheated for 1 min52±215029
Tannia, peeled, boiled 30 min, uncrushed (whole), refrigerated, reheated for 1 min5015028
mean of three foods5415030
Yam
Coco yam (Xanthosoma spp.), peeled, cubed, boiled 30 min (Jamaica)61±115028
Lucea yam (Dioscorea rotunda), peeled, cubed, boiled 30 (Jamaica)74±415020
Lucea yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal (Jamaica)77±715029
Negro yam (Dioscorea rotundata), peeled, cubed, boiled 30 (Jamaica)73±315023
Negro yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal (Jamaica)73±315028
Round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), peeled, cubed, boiled 30 min (Jamaica)68±815023
Round leaf yellow yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal (Jamaica)8015032
Sweet yam (Dioscorea alata), peeled, cubed, boiled 30 min (Jamaica)79±915020
Sweet yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal (Jamaica)82±215032
White yam (Dioscorea alata), peeled, boiled 30 min, refrigerated, reheated for 1 min62±215015
White yam, peeled, cubed, boiled 30 min (Jamaica)75±515024
White yam, peeled, roasted on preheated charcoal (Jamaica)8015028